In this study we investigated how microdamage accumulated with increasing compressive strain in bovine trabecular bone. We found that little damage is created in the linear elastic region, up to –0.4 percent strain. At an average strain of –0.76 percent±0.25 percent, the stress-strain curve became nonlinear, and peaked at –1.91 percent±0.55 percent strain. Microdamage increases rapidly during the peak of the stress-strain curve, and a localized band of damage formed. At strains beyond the ultimate strain, the damaged band widened and the density of damage within the band increased. Microdamage occurred as groupings of cracks; the majority of damage occurred as regions of cross-hatching. All microdamage parameters increased with increasing maximum compressive strain. We also observed exponential relationships between crack numerical density and damage (1°–°Esec/E0) and between crack length density and damage.