Many biological materials are known to be anisotropic. In particular, microstructural components of biological materials may grow in a preferred direction, giving rise to anisotropy in the microstructure. Nanoindentation has been shown to be an effective technique for determining the mechanical properties of microstructures as small as a few microns. However, the effects of anisotropy on the properties measured by nanoindentation have not been fully addressed. This study presents a method to account for the effects of anisotropy on elastic properties measured by nanoindentation. This method is used to correlate elastic properties determined from earlier nanoindentation experiments and from earlier ultrasonic velocity measurements in human tibial cortical bone. Also presented is a procedure to determine anisotropic elastic moduli from indentation measurements in multiple directions.
anisotropy; cortical bone; elastic modulus; nanoindentation; ultrasonic velocity