This research investigated (1) what are the key attributes of the between-rail, frontal crash, (2) what are the types of object contacted, and (3) what is the type of resulting trauma. The method was to study with both weighted and in-depth case reviews of NASS-CDS crash data with direct damage between the longitudinal rails in frontal crashes. Individual case selection was limited to belted occupants in between-rail, frontal impacts of good-rated, late-model vehicles equipped with air bags.
This paper evaluates the risk of trauma for drivers in cars and LTVs in between-rail, frontal crashes, and suggests the betweenrail impact is more dangerous to car drivers. Using weighted data—representing 227,305 tow-away crashes—the resulting trauma to various body regions was analyzed to suggest greatest injury is to the chest, pelvis/thigh/knee/leg, and foot/ankle. This study analyzed the type of object that caused the direct damage between the rails, including small tree or post, large tree or pole, and another vehicle; and found that the struck object was most often another vehicle or a large tree/pole. Both the extent of damage and the occupant compartment intrusion were explored, and suggest that 64% of the serious injuries are associated with increasing intrusion. Individual NASS cases were reviewed to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanical particulars in the between-rail crash.
|2008||Sullivan K, Henry S, Laituri TR. A frontal impact taxonomy for usa field data. In: Proceedings of the SAE World Congress & Exhibition. April 14-17, 2008; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 2008-01-0526.|
|1990||The Abbreviated Injury Scale-1990 Revision. Des Plaines, IL: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM); 1990.|
|2010||Scullion P, Morgan RM, Mohan P, Kan C-D, Shanks K, Jin W, Tangirala R. A reexamination of the small overlap frontal crash. In: 54th Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). October 17-20, 2010; Las Vegas, NV.137-147.|
|2006||Niehoff P, Gabler HC. The accuracy of winsmash delta-v estimates: the influence of vehicle type, stiffness, and impact mode. In: 50th Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). October 16-18, 2006; Chicago, IL.73-89.|
|2008||Hong S-W, Park C-K, Mohan P, Morgan RM, Kan C-D, Lee K, Park S, Bae H. Comparative analysis of a vehicle impacting a rigid barrier, an offset deformable barrier, and a rigid pole. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 17-19, 2008; Bern, Switzerland.417-420.|
|2012||Austin RA. Lower Extremity Injuries and Intrusion in Frontal Crashes. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; March 2012. Report No. DOT HS 811 578.|
|2006||Arbelaez RA, Aylor D, Nolan JM, Braitman KA, Baker BC. Crash modes and injury patterns in real-world narrow object frontal crashes. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 20-22, 2006; Madrid, Spain.333-336.|
|2015||Prasad P, Dalmotas D, German A. The incidence and severity of small overlap frontal crashes in NASS-CDS. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 8-11, 2015; Gothenburg, Sweden.|
|2013||Reichert R, Morgan RM, Park C, Digges KH, Kan C. Thoracic and abdominal injuries to drivers in between‐rail frontal crashes. In: Proceedings of the 2013 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 11-13, 2013; Gothenburg, Sweden.818-830.|
|2014||Prasad P, Dalmotas D, German A. The field relevance of NHTSA’s oblique research moving deformable barrier tests. Stapp Car Crash J. November 2014;58:175-195.|