A comparison of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old crash test dummies is presented in this paper. The performance of the dummies were compared in sixty biofidelity tests, seventy-seven static out-of-position airbag tests and sixty- three calibration tests. Various time histories and other data pertaining to accelerations, deflections, forces and moments are compared. In addition, the ease of positioning, handling, and the durability of the dummies in various out- of-position test configurations was assessed.
Both the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were calibrated to their respective specifications. The Hybrid III 3-year-old met its calibration requirements, while the Q3 did not always meet its own calibration requirements. The calibration specifications of the Q3 dummy need to be re-examined and possibly refined.
The biofidelity of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were evaluated in both frontal and lateral test modes. Each dummy was evaluated against its own and the other''s specified requirements, when possible. In the frontal test mode, the Hybrid III 3-year-old acceptably met all of its requirements. The Q3 dummy did not meet all of its own frontal biofidelity requirements. Based on these results, the Hybrid III 3-year-old is more biofidelic for primarily frontal loading conditions.
With respect to the lateral biofidelity specifications, neither the Hybrid III 3-year-old nor the Q3 dummy met the requirements for the thorax and pelvis tests performed. Both dummies met the head drop requirements. Neither dummy is recommended for lateral loading conditions. For lateral testing where only the head is impacted, the Hybrid III 3-year-old could be used.
In general, the responses of both dummies were repeatable in both the frontal and lateral biofidelity tests performed.
The Hybrid III 3-year-old and the Q3 dummies were evaluated in static out- of-position airbag tests with three different side airbag systems (two seat- mounted and one door-mounted system), and one frontal passenger airbag system. Throughout this testing, the Q3 resultant head accelerations exhibited an excessive amount of high-frequency noise causing this dummy to be unacceptable for static out-of-position airbag testing. No significant issues were found with the Hybrid III 3-year-old.
It was also determined that the Q3 dummy was more difficult to position repeatedly than the Hybrid III 3-year-old. This was due to the dummy''s construction and its lack of rigid landmarks.
|1977||Foster JK, Kortge JO, Wolanin MJ. Hybrid III: a biomechanically-based crash test dummy. In: Proceedings of the 21st Stapp Car Crash Conference. October 19-21, 1977; New Orleans, LA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:975-1014. SAE 770938.|
|1997||van Ratingen MR, Twisk D, Schrooten M, Beusenberg MC, Barnes A, Platten G. Biomechanically based design and performance targets for a 3-year old child crash dummy for frontal and side impact. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Child Occupant Protection Symposium. November 12, 1997; Orlando, FL.243-260. SAE 973316.|
|1986||Hamilton MN, Chen H-H, Guenther DA. Adult to child scaling and normalizing of lateral thoracic impact data. In: Proceedings of the 30th Stapp Car Crash Conference. October 27-29, 1986; San Diego, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:143-156. SAE 861883.|
|1989||Mertz HJ, Irwin AL, Melvin JW, Stalnaker RL, Beebe MS. Size, weight and biomechanical impact response requirements for adult size small female and large male dummies. In: Proceedings of the SAE International Congress & Exposition. February 27–March 3, 1989; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 890756.|
|1998||Rouhana SW, Elhagediab AM, Chapp JJ. A high-speed sensor for measuring chest deflection in crash test dummies. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 31–June 4, 1998; Windsor, Ontario, Canada.2017-2045.|
|1984||Mertz HJ. A procedure for normalizing impact response data. In: Proceedings of the SAE Government/industry Meeting & Exposition. May 21-24, 1984; Washington, DC. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:1-8. SAE 840884.|
|1997||Irwin A, Mertz HJ. Biomechanical basis for the CRABI and Hybrid III child dummies. In: Proceedings of the 41st Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 13-14, 1997; Lake Buena Vista, FL. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:1-12. SAE 973317.|
|1995||Instrumentation for impact test, I: electronic instrumentation. Society for Automotive Engineers International; March 1995. SAE J211-1.|
|2001||Xu L, Nusholtz G, Rabbiolo G, Kostyniuk G. Extraction of information from noisy 3-year-old ATD response signals in static out-of-position airbag tests. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 4-7, 2001; Amsterdam, The Netherlands.|
|2003||Monclus-Gonzalez J, Marzougui D, Bahouth G, Eskandarian A. An investigation of side impact test methodologies for child restraint systems using finite element simulations. In: Proceedings of the 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 19-22, 2003; Nagoya, Japan.|
|2005||de Jager K, van Ratingen M, Lesire P, Guillemot H, Pastor C, Schnottale B, Tejera G, Lepretre J-P. Assessing new child dummies and criteria for child occupant protection in frontal impact. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 6-9, 2005; Washington, DC.|
|2007||Carlson M, Burleigh M, Barnes A, Waagmeester K, van Ratingen M. Q3s 3 year old side impact dummy development. In: Proceedings of the 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 18-21, 2007; Lyon, France.|
|2009||Tanaka Y, Yonezawa H, Hosokawa N, Matsui Y, Mizuno K, Yamaguchi M, Yoshida R. Responses of Hybrid III 3YO and Q3 dummies in various CRSs tested using ECE R44 impact conditions. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 15-18, 2009; Stuttgart, Germany.|
|2012||Beeman SM, Kemper AR, Madigan ML, Franck CT, Loftus SC. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS. Accid Anal Prev. July 2012;47:128-139.|
|2014||Ita ME. Comparison of Q3s Anthropomorphic Test Device Biomechanical Responses to Pediatric Volunteers [Master's thesis]. The Ohio State University; 2014.|