The purpose of this study was to use high resolution (HR) magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images combined with texture analysis to investigate the trabecular structure of human vertebral and femoral specimens and to compare these techniques with bone mineral density (BMD) in the prediction of bone strength. Twenty‐nine bone cubes were harvested from 12 proximal femur cadaver specimens and 29 from 8 spines. HR MR and CT images were obtained, and texture analysis techniques were used to assess trabecular structure. Additionally, BMD, elastic modulus (EM), and maximum compressive strength were determined. R² for EM versus texture measures computed in the MR images was higher (R² = 0.27–0.64, p < 0.01) in the spine than in the femur specimens (R² = 0.12–0.22, p < 0.05). R² values were similar in the CT images. R² for EM versus BMD was 0.66 (p < 0.01) in the spine and 0.61 (p < 0.01) in the femur specimens. In the MR images, texture measures combined with BMD in a multivariate‐regression model significantly increased R², while improvement was less significant in the CT images. Thus, texture analysis may provide additional information needed to analyze bone strength and quality.