The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of restraints in preventing injury-producing contacts of specific body regions, such as the head or chest, with specific interior components. In order to make comparisons by restraint use, an injury rate is calculated as the number of injury-producing contacts per hundred involved occupants. Data, including the Occupant Injury Classification (OIC), are from the 1988-92 National Accident Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The analysis presented is limited to passenger vehicle drivers in towaway, frontal impacts.
Injury-producing contact rates are compared for four restraint configurations: unrestrained, three-point belted, driver airbag alone, and driver airbag plus three-point belt. For each restraint configuration, contact rates are compared by three categories of injury severity, AIS 1, AIS 2, and AIS 3-6, body region injured, and contact area producing the injury. The three-point belt provides substantial reductions in driver injury rates for head/face and torso contacts with the glazing, pillar/rails, and steering assembly. The addition of the driver airbag to the three-point belt appears to offer further reductions in these injury rates. The driver airbag alone did not show similar reductions, although sample size was very limited. Also, the injury rate for airbag contacts is more than three times the rate for belt contacts. The effects of occupant age, gender, and stature are identified as areas for further study.
|1993||Thomas P, Bradford M. The nature and source of the head injuries sustained by restrained front seat occupants in frontal collisions. In: Proceedings of the 1993 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 8-10, 1993; Eindhoven, The Netherlands.29-40.|
|1987||Backaitis SH, Roberts JV. Occupant injury patterns in crashes with airbag equipped government sponsored cars. In: Proceedings of the 31st Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 9-11, 1987; New Orleans, LA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:251-266. SAE 872216.|
|1975||Marsh JC, Scott RE, Melvin JW. Injury patterns by restraint usage in 1973 and 1974 passenger cars. In: Proceedings of the 19th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 17-19, 1975; San Diego, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:45-78. SAE 751143.|
|1993||Zador PL, Ciccone MA. Automobile driver fatalities in frontal impacts: air bags compared with manual belts. Am J Public Health. May 1993;83(5):661-666.|
|2000||Pintar FA, Yoganandan N, Gennarelli TA. Airbag effectiveness on brain trauma in frontal crashes. In: 44th Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). October 2-4, 2000; Chicago, IL.149-169.|
|1998||Rouhana SW, Webb SR, Dunn VC. Investigation into the noise associated with airbag deployment, II: injury risk study using a mathematical model of the human ear. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 2-4, 1998; Tempa, AZ. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:267-. SAE 983162.|