In 1961, Evans and King documented the mechanical properties of trabecular bone from multiple locations in the proximal human femur. Since this time, many investigators have cataloged the distribution of trabecular bone material properties from multiple locations within the human skeleton to include femur, tibia, humerus, radius, vertebral bodies, and iliac crest. The results of these studies have revealed tremendous variations in material properties and anisotropy. These variations have been attributed to functional remodeling as dictated by Wolff's Law. Both linear and power functions have been found to explain the relationship between trabecular bone density and material properties. Recent studies have re-emphasized the need to accurately quantify trabecular bone architecture proposing several algorithms capable of determining the anisotropy, connectivity and morphology of the bone. These past studies, as well as continuing work, have significantly increased the accuracy of analytical and experimental models investigating bone, and bone implant interfaces as well as enhanced our perspective towards understanding the factors which may influence bone formation or resorption.