The Young's modulus, bending strength, apparent density, and ash content of 155 human compact bone bending specimens were determined. Both Young's modulus (E) and bending strength (S) were strongly correlated to tissue dry apparent density (ρa). Based upon the correlation coefficient (R) and the percent deviation of the data from the regression curve (% dev.), these correlations were best described by power law relationships: E∞ ρa1.54 (R² = 0.79, % dev. = 2.4) and S∞ ρa2.18 (R² = 0.80, % dev. = 6.4). Bending strength was related to Young's modulus raised to the 1.26 power, implying a nonlinear relationship for these variables. We found a weak correlation between ash content and the mechanical behavior of the compact bone specimens, particularly Young's modulus, but could not statistically justify formulation of a more complex multivariate power model incorporating both density and ash content. Regional variations in strength and stiffness along the femoral shaft and within the cortex were also noted and were attributed primarily to differences in apparent density. The relationships formulated for the mechanical behavior of human compact bone are discussed in terms of the results of previous investigations of the mechanical behavior of nonhuman compact bone and human cancellous bone.
Keywords: Human compact bone; Young's modulus; Bending strength; Apparent density; Ash content