The goal of this study was to develop a motion-based injury criterion for brain injuries derived from the material response of the brain tissue, under the assumption that impact response of the brain tissue can be characterized by a standard linear solid. Focus was given to brain injuries that are deemed to correlate with the strain of the brain tissue, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury. The criterion is based on rotational motion of the head because of incompressibility of the brain tissue that allows large strain primarily in rotation.
The stiffness and damping parameters of one-dimensional Kelvin model were determined for each axis of rotation of the head in such a way that scaled displacement time history matches strain time history of the brain tissue predicted by the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) head-brain model. The convolution integral of the impulse response of the model was used to predict strain time history of the brain when an arbitrary rotational acceleration time history is applied to the head. The maximum value of the predicted strain was defined as a new brain injury criterion (Convolution of Impulse response for Brain Injury Criterion; CIBIC). Head rotational acceleration data were taken from a number of crash test data representing full frontal, oblique frontal and side impacts along with pedestrian impact simulation results to investigate correlation between the values of various brain injury criteria, including CIBIC, and the maximum principal strain from the head-brain model.
The injury criterion proposed by this study, CIBIC, resulted in a better correlation with the predicted maximum principal strain of the brain relative to those proposed by past studies in all of the four crash configurations (R 2 ranging from 0.624 to 0.864). It was also found that the coefficient of determination was smaller for the impact conditions resulting in multiple or long-duration loading than other impact configurations representing single short-duration loading.
|2012||Kimpara H, Iwamoto M. Mild traumatic brain injury predictors based on angular accelerations during impacts. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):114-126.|
|1943||Holbourn AHS. Mechanics of head injuries. Lancet. October 9, 1943;242(6267):438-441.|
|2000||Newman JA, Shewchenko N, Welbourne E. A proposed new biomechanical head injury assessment function: the maximum power index. Stapp Car Crash J. 2000;44:215-247. SAE 2000-01-SC16.|
|2016||Gabler LF, Joodaki H, Crandall JR, Panzer MB. Toward development of a single‐degree‐of‐freedom mechanical model for predicting brain injury. In: Proceedings of the 2016 International IRCOBI Asia Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. May 16-18, 2016; Seoul, South Korea.16-17.|
|2013||Mao H, Zhang L, Jiang B, Genthikatti VV, Jin X, Zhu F, Makwana R, Gill A, Jandir G, Singh A, Yang KH. Development of a finite element human head model partially validated with thirty five experimental cases. J Biomech Eng. November 2013;135(11):111002.|
|2013||Takhounts EG, Craig MJ, Moorhouse K, McFadden J, Hasija V. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC). Stapp Car Crash J. November 2013;57:243-266.|
|2001||Bandak FA, Zhang AX, Tannous RE, DiMasi F, Masiello P, Eppinger R. SIMon: a simulated injury monitor; application to head injury assessment. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 4-7, 2001; Amsterdam, The Netherlands.|
|1971||Versace J. A review of the severity index. In: Proceedings of the 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 17-19, 1971; Coronado, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:771-796. SAE 710881.|
|2019||Yanaoka T, Takahashi Y, Sugaya H, Kawabuch T. Investigation of strain-induced brain injury mechanism in simulated car accidents. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 10-13, 2019; Eindhoven, Netherlands.|
|2019||Nakamura H, Okamura K, Umezawa M, Ito O, Asanuma H, Sasaki M. Research of pedestrian injury reduction mechanism between the beginning of the collision and fall of the ground. In: Proceedings of the 26th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 10-13, 2019; Eindhoven, Netherlands.|
|2020||Sahoo D, Coulongeat F, Fuerst F, Marini G. Comparison of head injury criteria based on real-world accident simulations under visual performance solution (VPS). In: Proceedings of the 2020 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. 2020; Florence, Italy.529-542.|
|2021||Zhan X, Li Y, Liu Y, Gevaert O, Zeineh M, Grant G, Camarillo DB. Statistical analysis of 18 brain injury criteria in evaluating brain strain on different types of head impact. In: Proceedings of the 2021 International IRCOBI Asia Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. June 2-2, 2021; Online.5-8.|
|2017||Gabler LF. Development of Improved Metrics for Predicting Brain Strain in Diverse Impacts [PhD thesis]. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia; December 2017.|
|2019||Alshareef AA. Deformation of the Human Brain Under Rotational Loading [PhD thesis]. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia; May 2019.|
|2019||Wu T. Integration of Interspecies Data for Developing Tissue-Level Brain Injury Risk Functions [PhD thesis]. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia; May 2019.|