This paper describes a CAE-based methodology used to identify major factors influencing vehicle structural performance and crash energy management in full-frontal vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. Finite element models of an "average" SUV and an "average" full-size passenger vehicle were used in this study. The determining factors of vehicle compatibility in multi-vehicle collisions are relative mass, relative stiffness and relative geometry. Four parameters of the average SUV, mass, fore rail length, fore rail thickness, and fore rail height were selected as design variables. A uniformly spaced Optimal Latin Hypercube sampling technique was employed to probe the design space of these variables using thirteen simulation runs.
Dash intrusions in the passenger vehicle and the absorbed collision energy in both vehicles were selected as response variables. Polynomial response surfaces were constructed, based on the simulation results, and found to fit the results well (R2= 0.98 for dash intrusion and R2= 0.85 for absorbed energy). As a result, prediction equations for maximum dash intrusion and absorbed collision energy as a function of the vehicle design variables were obtained. Results indicated that aligning front-end structures (specifically fore rail heights between impacted vehicles) in vehicle-to-vehicle full-frontal collisions has greater effect on reducing dash intrusions and managing crash energy than mass and variables associated with stiffness. An optimal design solution could also be determined with the appropriate introduction of constraint conditions.
|1994||Evans L. Driver injury and fatality risk in two-car crashes versus mass ratio inferred using Newtonian mechanics. Accid Anal Prev. October 1994;26(5):609-616.|
|2001||Barbat S, Li X, Prasad P. Evaluation of vehicle compatibility in various frontal impact configurations. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 4-7, 2001; Amsterdam, The Netherlands.|
|1998||Steyer C, Delhommeau M, Delannoy P. Proposal to improve compatibility in head on collisions. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 31–June 4, 1998; Windsor, Ontario, Canada.682-692.|
|1993||Evans L, Frick MC. Mass ratio and relative driver fatality risk in two-vehicle crashes. Accid Anal Prev. April 1993;25(2):213-224.|
|1998||Mizuno K, Kajzer J. The compatibility of mini cars in traffic accidents. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 31–June 4, 1998; Windsor, Ontario, Canada.715-728.|
|1998||Gabler HC, Hollowell WT. The aggressivity of light trucks and vans in traffic crashes. In: Proceedings of the SAE International Congress & Exposition. February 23-26, 1998; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 980908.|
|2001||Barbat S, Li X, Prasad P. A comparative analysis of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-rigid fixed barrier frontal impacts. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 4-7, 2001; Amsterdam, The Netherlands.|