This paper discusses issues related to the Hybrid III dummy head/neck response due to deploying air bags. The primary issue is the occurrence of large moment at the occypital condyles of the dummy, when the head-rotation with respect to the torso is relatively small. The improbability of such an occurrence in humans is discussed in detail based on the available biomechanical data. A secondary issue is the different anthropometric characteristics of the head/neck region of the Hybrid III dummy when compared to humans.
Different modes of interaction between the deploying air bag and the Hybrid III dummy’s neck are discussed. Key features of the dummy’s response in these interaction modes have been described in light of the laxity of the atlanto-occypital joint and the effect of the neck muscle pairs. Issues for improving the biofidelity of the Hybrid III dummy’s neck response due to deploying air bags are discussed.
|2000||Xu L, Jensen J, Byrnes K, Kim A, Agaram V, Davis KL, Hultman RW, Kostyniuk G, Marshall ME, Mertz H, Nusholtz G, Rouhana S, Scherer R. Comparative performance evaluation of THOR and Hybrid III. In: Proceedings of the SAE World Congress. March 6-9, 2000; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 2000-01-0161.|
|1993||Melvin JW, Horsch JD, McCleary JD, Wideman LC, Jensen JL, Wolanin MJ. Assessment of air bag deployment loads with the small female Hybrid III dummy. In: Proceedings of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 7-8, 1993; San Antonio, TX. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:121-132. SAE 933119.|
|1988||Goel VK, Clark CR, Gallaes K, Liu YK. Moment-rotation relationships of the ligamentous occipito-atlanto-axial complex. J Biomech. 1988;21(8):673-680.|
|1971||Mertz HJ, Patrick LM. Strength and response of the human neck. In: Proceedings of the 15th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 17-19, 1971; Coronado, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:207-255. SAE 710855.|
|1989||Mertz HJ, Irwin AL, Melvin JW, Stalnaker RL, Beebe MS. Size, weight and biomechanical impact response requirements for adult size small female and large male dummies. In: Proceedings of the SAE International Congress & Exposition. February 27–March 3, 1989; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 890756.|
|1998||Morris CR, Zuby DS, Lund AK. Measuring airbag injury risk to out-of-position occupants. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 31–June 4, 1998; Windsor, Ontario, Canada.1036-1043.|
|2002||Ono K, Kaneoka K, Hattori S, Ujihashi S, Takhounts EG, Haffner M, Eppinger RH. Cervical vertebral motions and biomechanical responses to direct loading of human head. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 18-20, 2002; Munich, Germany.|