Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, enhanced in diabetes and aging, result in excessive accumulation of advanced glycation and glycoxidation end products (AGEs/AGOEs) in bone. AGEs/AGOES are considered to be “the missing link” in explaining increased skeletal fragility with diabetes, aging, and osteoporosis where increased fracture risk cannot be solely explained by bone mass and/or fall incidences. AGEs/AGOEs disrupt bone turnover and deteriorate bone quality through alterations of organic matrix (collagen and non-collagenous proteins), mineral, and water content. AGEs and AGOEs are also associated with bone fragility in other conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, circadian rhythm disruption, and cancer. This review explains how AGEs and AGOEs accumulate in bone and impact bone quality and bone fracture, and how AGES/AGOEs are being targeted in preclinical and clinical investigations for inhibition or removal, and for prediction and management of diabetic, osteoporotic and insufficiency fractures.
Non-enzymatic glycation; Advanced glycation end-products; Glycoxidation; Bone quality; Fracture; Diabetes