In this thesis, the normal kinematics and pathomechanics of the shoulder have been studied. The optical technique of stereophotogrammetry was used to simultaneously obtain the normal articular and subchondral bone geometry, kinematics and contact patterns in the glenohumeral joint. It was determined that on average, the joint demonstrated minimal translations of the geometric center of the humeral head cartilage surface. Bone surface data, such as that obtained from radiographs, were shown to overestimate the incongruence and magnitude of translations in the joint. Elevation in external rotation was seen to be associated with larger translations of the humeral head center than when the arm was elevated with no external rotation.
It was observed that anterior tightening did not affect the position of the humeral head in the medial-lateral and inferior-superior directions, but did result in the center of the humeral head translating posteriorly throughout the range of motion. A computer simulation of anterior acromioplasty was performed to determine the appropriate location and amount of acromial bone removal necessary to eliminate impingement. Anterior third flattening eliminated impingement without sacrificing the integrity of the deltoid origin.
Sequential tears of the rotator cuff were created to determine their effect on experimentally obtained glenohumeral kinematics and contact. The supraspinatus tendon was observed to have both an active and a passive role in maintaining the position of the humeral head. The long head of the biceps was also noted to play an active role in stabilizing the humeral head especially in the presence of a large supraspinatus tear. Repair of the rotator cuff was seen to restore near normal kinematics characterized by small translations of the humeral head center through the range of motion.
A solution for the time-dependent creep response for two biphasic cartilage layers in a contact configuration was obtained. Fluid pressurization was seen to be the dominant load support mechanism immediately after load application. Differences in thicknesses of the layers were seen to cause a complex fluid flow pattern in which fluid flowed from the thinner layer into the thicker layer at small time. At intermediate time, the flow reversed in direction and flowed into the thinner layer from the thicker layer. At very large time, the fluid pressurization and fluid flow both dropped to zero. The principal effective stresses and the maximum shear stresses were also smaller in the thinner layers than in the thicker layers.
|1991||Ateshian G, Soslowsky L, Mow V. Quantitation of articular surface topography and cartilage thickness in knee joints using stereophotogrammetry. J Biomech. January 1991;24(8):761-776.|
|1975||Walker PS, Erkman MJ. The role of the menisci in force transmission across the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res. June 1975;109:184-192.|
|1991||Ateshian GHA. Biomechanics of Diarthrodial Joints: Applications to the Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint [PhD thesis]. Columbia University; 1991.|
|1994||Ateshian GA, Lai WM, Zhu WB, Mow VC. An asymptotic solution for the contact of two biphasic cartilage layers. J Biomech. November 1994;27(11):1347-1360.|
|1995||Ateshian GA, Wang H. A theoretical solution for the frictionless rolling contact of cylindrical biphasic articular cartilage layers. J Biomech. November 1995;28(11):1341-1355.|
|1984||Huberti HH, Hayes WC. Patellofemoral contact pressures: the influence of Q-angle and tendofemoral contact. J Bone Joint Surg. June 1984;66A(5):715-724.|
|1983||Ahmed AM, Burke DL. In-vitro of measurement of static pressure distribution in synovial joints, I: tibial surface of the knee. J Biomech Eng. August 1983;105(3):216-225.|
|1992||Spilker RL, Suh J-K, Mow VC. A finite element analysis of the indentation stress-relaxation response of linear biphasic articular cartilage. J Biomech Eng. May 1992;114(2):191-201.|
|1971||Hayes WC, Mockros LF. Viscoelastic properties of human articular cartilage. J Appl Physiol. October 1971;31(4):562-568.|
|1980||Lai WM, Mow VC. Drag-induced compression of articular cartilage during a permeation experiment. Biorheology. 1980;17(1-2):111-123.|
|1994||Setton LA, Mow VC, Müller FJ, Pita JC, Howell DS. Mechanical properties of canine articular cartilage are significantly altered following transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Orthop Res. July 1994;12(4):451-463.|
|1990||Eberhardt AW, Keer LM, Lewis JL, Vithoontien V. An analytical model of joint contact. J Biomech Eng. November 1990;112(4):407-413.|
|1983||Woo SL-Y, Gomez MA, Seguchi Y, Endo CM, Akeson WH. Measurement of mechanical properties of ligament substance from a bone-ligament-bone preparation. J Orthop Res. 1983;1(1):22-29.|
|1988||Veldpaus FE, Woltring HJ, Dortmans JMG. A least-squares algorithm for the equiform transformation from spatial marker co-ordinates. J Biomech. 1988;21(1):45-54.|
|1987||Mak AF, Lai WM, Mow VC. Biphasic indentation of articular cartilage, I: theoretical analysis. J Biomech. 1987;20(7):703-714.|
|1977||Parsons JR, Black J. The viscoelastic shear behavior of normal rabbit articular cartilage. J Biomech. 1977;10(1):21-29.|
|1971||Kempson GE, Freeman MAR, Swanson SAV. The determination of a creep modulus for articular cartilage from indentation tests on the human femoral head. J Biomech. July 1971;4(4):239-250.|
|1984||Radin EL, Martin RB, Burr DB, Caterson B, Boyd RD, Goodwin C. Effects of mechanical loading on the tissues of the rabbit knee. J Orthop Res. 1984;2(3):221-234.|
|1989||Mow VC, Gibbs MC, Lai WM, Zhu WB, Athanasiou KA. Biphasic indentation of articular cartilage, II: a numerical algorithm and an experimental study. J Biomech. 1989;22:853-861.|
|1980||Mow VC, Kuei SC, Lai WM, Armstrong CG. Biphasic creep and stress relaxation of articular cartilage in compression: theory and experiments. J Biomech Eng. February 1980;102(1):73-84.|
|1992||Soslowsky LJ, Flatow EL, Bigliani LU, Pawluk RJ, Ateshian GA, Mow VC. Quantitation of in situ contact areas at the glenohumeral joint: a biomechanical study. J Orthop Res. July 1992;10(4):524-534.|
|1992||Mow VC, Ratcliffe A, Robin Poole A. Cartilage and diarthrodial joints as paradigms for hierarchical materials and structures. Biomaterials. 1992;13(22):67-97.|
|1991||Athanasiou KA, Rosenwasser MP, Buckwalter JA, Malinin TI, Mow VC. Interspecies comparisons of in situ intrinsic mechanical properties of distal femoral cartilage. J Orthop Res. May 1991;9(3):330-340.|
|1976||Noyes FR, Grood ES. The strength of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans and Rhesus monkeys. J Bone Joint Surg. 1976;58A(8):1074-1082.|
|1992||Bigliani LU, Pollock RG, Soslowsky LJ, Flatow EL, Pawluk RJ, Mow VC. Tensile properties of the inferior glenohumeral ligament. J Orthop Res. March 1992;10(2):187-197.|
|1984||Brown TD, Radin EL, Martin RB, Burr DB. Finite element studies of some juxtarticular stress changes due to localized subchondral stiffening. J Biomech. 1984;17(1):11-24.|
|1962||McCutchen CW. The frictional properties of animal joints. Wear. January–February 1962;5(1):1-17.|
|1986||Akizuki S, Mow VC, Müller F, Pita JC, Howell DS, Manicourt DH. Tensile properties of human knee joint cartilage, I: influence of ionic conditions, weight bearing, and fibrillation on the tensile modulus. J Orthop Res. 1986;4(4):379-392.|
|1994||Ateshian GA, Kwak SD, Soslowsky LJ, Mow VC. A stereophotogrammetric method for determining in situ contact areas in diarthrodial joints, and a comparison with other methods. J Biomech. January 1994;27(1):111-124.|