Fifty-three static out-of-position tests were conducted with a "small female" dummy placed in three different positions, and with distances of 0 mm and 50 mm from the airbag.
The driver-side module with a single-stage inflator was additionally tested with inflator versions tailored to 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of peak tank pressure, in order to simulate the first of two stages of a dual-stage inflator.
In general, biomechanical loadings decreased with less inflator propellant. Critical chest loadings were measured down to the 60%-stage. The neck extension bending moment exceeded the limit only with the 100%-charge. distances of 50 rnm, none of the threshold values were exceeded. Charge reductions of 20% between two stages did not necessarily reduce occupant loadings.
|1993||Melvin JW, Horsch JD, McCleary JD, Wideman LC, Jensen JL, Wolanin MJ. Assessment of air bag deployment loads with the small female Hybrid III dummy. In: Proceedings of the 37th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 7-8, 1993; San Antonio, TX. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:121-132. SAE 933119.|
|1996||Prasad P, Laituri TR. Consideration for belted FMVSS 208 testing. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 13-16, 1996; Melbourne, Australia.389-400.|
|1990||Horsch J, Lau I, Andrzejak D, Viano D, Melvin J, Pearson J, Cok D, Miller G. Assessment of air bag deployment loads. In: Proceedings of the 34th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 4-7, 1990; Orlando, FL. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:267-288. SAE 902324.|
|1993||Mertz HJ. Anthropomorphic test devices. In: Nahum AM, Melvin JW, eds. Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1993:66-84.|
|1995||Malczyk A, Adomeit H-D. The airbag folding pattern as a means for injury reduction of out-of-position occupants. In: Proceedings of the 39th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 8-10, 1995; San Diego, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:19-35. SAE 952704.|