Following intensive field research based on over 5000 vehicles , it was shown that 5% of the drivers still do not wear any seatbelts. New vehicles are now being fitted with active safety features which will influence the kinematics of these un-restrained drivers  and may have important safety implications.
The proposed study assesses the safety benefit of a pre-braking event on the occupant position, stance and injury and will review the contribution of active muscle behaviour of a 50th percentile human model  in comparison with a passive human model  and discusses the potential using active human simulation for testing driver assistance safety technologies.
|2010||Bose D, Crandall JR, Untaroiu CD, Maslen EH. Influence of pre-collision occupant parameters on injury outcome in a frontal collision. Accid Anal Prev. July 2010;42(4):1398-1407.|
|2005||de Lange R, van Rooij L, Mooi H, Wismans J. Objective biofidelity rating of a numerical human occupant model in frontal to lateral impact. Stapp Car Crash J. 2005;49:457-479. SAE 2005-22-0020.|
|2013||Bastien C, Blundell M, Neal-Sturgess C, Hoffmann J, Diederich A, Van Der Made R, Freisinger M. Safety assessment of autonomous emergency braking systems on unbelted occupants using a fully active human model. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). May 27-30, 2013; Seoul, South Korea.|