In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, EuroSID2 and SID-IIs. The purpose of this paper is to provide in a single document: 1) a listing of the IARVs for measurements made with the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies, and for the biofidelic side impact dummies, 2) the biomechanical and/or scaling bases for these IARVs, and 3) a comparison of IARVs and regulatory compliance limits and how they affect restraint design.
Keywords: injury assessment; IARV; injury risk curves; injury criteria; compliance limits; crash test dummies; restraint systems