This paper presents the results of direct impact tests and driving point impedance tests on the legs of seated unembalmed human cadavers. Variables studied in the program included impactor energy and impact direction (axial and oblique). Multiple strain gage rosettes were applied to the bone to determine the strain distribution in the bone.
The test results indicate that the unembalmed skeletal system of the lower extremities is capable of carrying significantly greater loads than those determined in tests with embalmed subjects (the only similar data reported in the present literature). The strain analysis indicated that significant bending moments are generated in the femur with axial knee impact. The results of the impedance tests are used to characterize the load transmission behavior of the knee-femur-pelvis complex, and the impact test results are combined with this information to produce suggested response characteristics for dummy simulation of knee impact response.