To evaluate the associations of sarcopenia and previous falls with 2-year major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs) in community-dwelling older adults. Four thousand Chinese men and women ≥ 65 years recruited from Hong Kong communities were prospectively followed up. Measures of muscle mass, grip strength, gait speed and falls in the previous year were recorded at baseline, the 2nd year and the 4th year visit for each subject. The associations of fall history, sarcopenia and its components with 2-year MOFs were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Poor grip strength and poor gait speed were significantly associated with a higher 2-year MOFs risk, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) per one SD decrease of 1.48 (1.17, 1.87) and 1.17 (1.00, 1.36), respectively. Falls in the previous year was a significant predictor for 2-year MOFs risk, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) per one added fall of 1.85 (1.40, 2.44) in men and 1.26 (1.01, 1.58) in women. The adjusted OR (95% CI) of height adjusted appendicular lean muscle mass (ALM/height2) per one SD decrease and sarcopenia for 2-year MOFs risk were 1.34 (0.87, 2.06) and 1.72 (0.92, 3.21) in men, and were 0.73 (0.57, 0.93) and 0.76 (0.39, 1.47) in women, respectively (P for interaction by gender = 0.012 and 0.017, respectively). Poor sarcopenia-related physical performance and falls in the previous year were significant predictors for 2-year MOFs in community-dwelling older adults. The predictive value of ALM by DXA for near-term fracture risk is limited and different across genders.
Epidemiology; Falls; Physical performance; Sarcopenia