A three-dimensional mathematical model of the crash victim has been developed and experimentally validated at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. The digital computer simulation includes a body dynamics model of 40 degrees of freedom and a contact model that generates forces from contact with vehicle surfaces and between body segments of the crash victim, and restraint forces from belts and inflatable restraints. The validity of the computer simulation was determined from comparisons of predicted responses with those measured in various experiments, including static bench tests, pendulum tests, impact sled tests, and a full-scale automobile crash test. Inputs to the computer program were based on detailed measurements of dummy characteristics and measured properties of the contact surfaces and restraints. The generally good agreement between the simulation and experimental results, plus the relatively low cost of exercising the model, demonstrate that the computer program is a useful engineering tool.
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