A time‐dependent approach for emulating bone modeling and remodeling in response to the daily loading history is presented. We postulate that genotype, systemic metabolic conditions, and local tissue interactions establish the level of local tissue mechanical stimulation (attractor state) appropriate for the maintenance of bone tissue. The net daily rate of apposition or resorption on a bone surface is determined by the difference between the actual stimulus and the tissue attractor state and can be modulated by other biologic factors. In calculating the net change in local bone apparent density, the technique takes into account the bone surface area available for osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. Endosteal, periosteal, haversian, and cancellous bone modeling and remodeling are thereby treated in a consistent, unified fashion.
Keywords: Bone modeling; Bone remodeling; Internal remodeling; External remodeling; Bone surface area density; Stress history