A hybrid model consisting of several parts: a baseline vehicle, a EUROSID-I dummy and a US-SID dummy, was developed using the finite element software RADIOSS. The Vehicle model was developed using truss, beam, spring and beam type spring elements. Where necessary, the vehicle model was complemented with shell elements. The EUROSID-1 and US-SID dummies were one dimensional lumped mass spring damper models and consisted of spine, ribs, and pelvis. The model will be used to evaluate effects of vehicle modifications on injury risk predicted by the dummies.
The model was validated by means of mechanical tests. Generally good agreement was obtained between predictions of the model and the results from the mechanical tests. The dummy models were validated by means of pendulum tests. The baseline vehicle model with the dummies were validated by means of crash tests according to both the American crash test procedure (FMVSS 214) and the proposed European side impact test procedure.
The applicability of the hybrid approach for vehicle and occupant modelling has been demonstrated. The hybrid model provides a quick and economical analysis of a large number of design changes. The advantage of this model is that it can be used in the early design stages of passenger vehicles.