This work developed a skull fracture criterion for impact-induced head injury, using post mortem human subject tests, anatomical test device measurements, statistical analyses, and finite element modeling. It is shown that skull fracture correlates with the tensile strain in the outer table of the cranial bone, and an index termed the Skull Fracture Correlate (SFC) predicts injury. SFC offers several advantages as a protection criterion. It accounts for compliance of the impact site; it is extensible to varying head mass; and it is easily implemented using current software. For a 15% or less probability of skull fracture the criterion is SFC < 120 g, with a 95% confidence band of 88 < SFC < 135 g.