Phosphate homeostasis involves several major organs that are the skeleton, the intestine, the kidney, and parathyroid glands. Major regulators of phosphate homeostasis are parathormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, which respond to variations of serum phosphate levels and act to increase or decrease intestinal absorption and renal tubular reabsorption, through the modulation of expression of transcellular transporters at the intestinal and/or renal tubular level. Any acquired or genetic dysfunction in these major organs or regulators may induce hypo- or hyperphosphatemia. The causes of hypo- and hyperphosphatemia are numerous. This review develops the main causes of acquired and genetic hypo- and hyperphosphatemia.
Hypophosphatemia; Hyperphosphatemia; Parathyroid hormone; Phosphate depletion; Phosphate regulation; Phosphates; Phosphatonins; Vitamin D