Pedestrian deaths constitute the second largest category of motor vehicle deaths in the US. The present study examined how pedestrian injury is associated with vehicle type, while controlling for vehicle weight and speed.
Police, trauma registry, and autopsy data were linked for injured pedestrians. Logistic regression analyses were performed to control for vehicle weight and speed. Outcomes included pedestrian mortality, injury severity score, and injuries to specific body regions.
Compared to conventional cars, pedestrians hit by sport utility vehicles and pick-up trucks were more likely to have higher injury severity scores (odds ratio=1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.18–1.87) and to die (odds ratio=1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.31–2.28). These relationships diminished when vehicle weight and speed were controlled for. At lower speeds, pedestrians struck by sport utility vehicles, pick-up trucks, and vans were approximately two times as likely to have traumatic brain, thoracic, and abdominal injuries; at higher speeds, there was no such association.
The overall increased danger sport utility vehicles and pick-up trucks present to pedestrians may be explained by larger vehicle masses and faster speeds. At slower speeds being hit by sport utility vehicles, and pick-up trucks, and vans resulted in specific injuries, indicating that vehicle design may contribute to different injury patterns.
|1978||Ashton SJ, Pedder JB, Mackay GM. Influence of vehicle design on pedestrian leg injuries. In: 22nd Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). July 10-14, 1978; Ann Arbor, MI.216-236.|
|1979||Ashton SJ. Some factors influencing the injuries sustained by child pedestrians struck by the fronts of cars. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Stapp Car Crash Conference. October 17-19, 1979; San Diego, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:353-380. SAE 791016.|
|1999||Mizuno K, Kajzer J. Compatibility problems in frontal, side, single car collisions and car-to-pedestrian accidents in Japan. Accid Anal Prev. July 1999;31(4):381-391.|
|2013||Obeng K, Rokonuzzaman M. Pedestrian injury severity in automobile crashes. Open J Safety Sci Technol. June 2013;3(2):9-17.|
|2015||Simms CK, Wood D, Fredriksson R. Pedestrian injury biomechanics and protection. In: Yoganandan N, Nahum AM, Melvin JW, eds. Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2015:721-753.|
|2005||Ivarsson BJ, Henary B, Crandall JR, Longhitano D. Significance of adult pedestrian torso injury. In: 49th Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). September 12-14, 2005; Boston, MA.263-277.|
|2008||Zhang G, Cao L, Hu J, Yang KH. A field data analysis of risk factors affecting the injury risks in vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes. In: 52nd Annual Proceedings, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). October 6-8, 2008; San Diego, CA.199-213.|
|2005||Longhitano D, Ivarsson J, Henary B, Crandall J. Torso injury trends for pedestrians struck by cars and LTVs. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 6-9, 2005; Washington, DC.|
|2007||Ivarsson BJ, Crandall JR, Burke C, Stadter G, Grabowski J, Fakhry S, Fredriksson R, Nentwich M. Pedestrian head impact: what determines the likelihood and wrap around distance? In: Proceedings of the 20th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 18-21, 2007; Lyon, France.|
|2009||Mallory A, Stammen J. Performance of vehicle bumper systems with the EEVC/TRL pedestrian lower legform. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV). June 15-18, 2009; Stuttgart, Germany.|
|2004||Ivarsson J, Lessley D, Kerrigan J, Bhalla K, Bose D, Crandall J, Kent R. Dynamic response corridors and injury thresholds of the pedestrian lower extremities. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 22-24, 2004; Graz, Austria.179-191.|
|2005||Kerrigan J, Kam C, Drinkwater C, Murphy D, Bose D, Ivarsson J, Crandall J. Kinematic comparison of the Polar-II and PMHS in pedestrian impact tests with a sport-utility vehicle. In: Proceedings of the 2005 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact. September 21-23, 2005; Prague, Czech Republic.159-174.|
|2011||Simms CK, Ormond T, Wood DP. The influence of vehicle shape on pedestrian ground contact mechanisms. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 14-16, 2011; Krakow, Poland.282-286.|
|2005||Ivarsson BJ, Kerrigan JR, Lessley DJ, Drinkwater DC, Kam CY, Murphy DB, Crandall JR, Kent RW. Dynamic response corridors of the human thigh and leg in non-midpoint three-point bending. In: Proceedings of the SAE World Congress & Exhibition. April 11-14, 2005; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 2005-01-0305.|
|2005||Longhitano D, Henary B, Bhalla K, Ivarsson J, Crandall J. Influence of vehicle body type on pedestrian injury distribution. In: Proceedings of the SAE World Congress & Exhibition. April 11-14, 2005; Detroit, MI. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE 2005-01-1876.|
|2013||Gupta V, Yang KH. Effect of vehicle front end profiles leading to pedestrian secondary head impact to ground. Stapp Car Crash J. November 2013;57:139-155.|
|2005||Roudsari BS, Mock CN, Kaufman R. An evaluation of the association between vehicle type and the source and severity of pedestrian injuries. Traffic Inj Prev. 2005;6(2):185-192.|
|2011||Anderson RWG, Doecke S. An analysis of head impact severity in simulations of collisions between pedestrians and SUVs/work utility vehicles, and sedans. Traffic Inj Prev. 2011;12(4):388-397.|
|2008||Kerrigan JR. A Computationally Efficient Mathematical Model of the Pedestrian Lower Extremity [PhD thesis]. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia; January 2008.|