Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone disease characterized by expansile lesions that typically stabilize with age. Rarely, FD can undergo malignant transformation, presenting with atypical, rapid growth and destruction of adjacent bone. Other potential causes of rapid FD expansion include secondary lesions, such as aneurysmal bone cysts. We describe a case of an aggressive occipital lesion that presented with pain associated with diplopia and tinnitus, raising concern for malignant transformation. A massive intraosseous arteriovenous fistula was identified giving rise to an anomalous vein coursing to the cavernous sinus with compression of the abducens nerve. The vascular anomaly was mapped and after embolization symptoms resolved; a biopsy with extensive genetic analyses excluded malignancy. The differential diagnosis for expanding FD lesions includes aggressive FD, malignant transformation, and secondary vascular anomalies. In cases when traditional radiographic and histologic assessments are nondescript, use of additional radiographic modalities and genetic analyses are required to make an accurate diagnosis and guide treatment. When vascular anomalies are suspected, detailed angiography with embolization is necessary to define and treat the lesion. However, to rule out malignant transformation, genetic screening is recommended.
Fibrous dysplasia; Intraosseous arteriovenous fstula; Malignant transformation; Aneurysmal bone cyst