Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the sphingomyelin synthase 2, SGMS2, have recently been linked to childhood-onset osteoporosis and skeletal dysplasia. One nonsense variant at position c.148C>T (p.Arg50*) has been associated with mild bone fragility with or without cranial sclerosis. Here we assessed the effect of the SGMS2 p.Arg50* variant in two unrelated probands with childhood-onset osteoporosis and their unaffected family members. We found that the p.Arg50* variant was associated with phenotypic variability, ranging from absence of a bone phenotype to severe vertebral compression fractures and low lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the radius and tibia in the two probands revealed low cortical volumetric BMD and reduced cortical thickness. In addition, both probands were obese and suffered from muscle function deficits compared to sex- and age-matched controls. Long-term bisphosphonate treatment was associated with reshaping of previously compressed vertebral bodies.
Keywords: Bisphosphonates; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Osteogenesis imperfecta; SGMS2