Dental implant may suffer transient external impacts. To simulate the effect of impact forces on bone damage is very important for evaluation of damage and guiding treatment in clinics. In this study, an animal model was established by inserting an implant into the femoral condyle of New Zealand rabbit. Implant with good osseointegration was loaded with impact force. A three-dimensional finite element model was established based on the data of the animal model. Damage process to bone tissue was simulated with Abaqus 6.13 software combining dynamic mechanical properties of the femur. The characteristics of bone damage were analyzed by comparing the results of animal testing with numerical simulation data. After impact, cortical bone around the implant and trabecular at the bottom of the implant were prone to damage. The degree of damage correlated with the direction of loading and the magnitude of the impact. Lateral loading was most likely performed to damage cancellous bone. The stress wave formed by the impact force can damage the implant–bone interface and peri-implant trabeculae. The data from numerical simulations were consistent with data from animal experiments, highlighting the importance of a thorough examination and evaluation based on the patient’s medical history.