With increasing life expectancy and mortality rates, the burden of osteoporotic hip fractures is continually on an upward trend. In terms of prevention, there are several osteoporosis treatment strategies such as anti-resorptive drug treatments, which attempt to retard the rate of bone resorption, while promoting the rate of formation. With respect to prediction, several studies have provided insights into obtaining bone strength by non-invasive means through the application of FE analysis. However, what valuable information can we obtain from FE studies that have focused on osteoporosis research, with respect to the prediction of osteoporotic fractures? This paper aims to fine studies that have used FE analysis to predict fractures in the proximal femur through a systematic search of literature using PUBMED, with the main objective of supporting the diagnosis of osteoporosis. The focus of these FE studies is first discussed, and the methodological aspects are summarized, by mainly comparing and contrasting their meshing properties, material properties, and boundary conditions. The implications of these methodological differences in FE modelling processes and propositions with the aim of consolidating or minimalizing these differences are further discussed. We proved that studies need to start converging in terms of their input parameters to make the FE method applicable to clinical settings. This, in turn, will decrease the time needed for in vitro tests. Current advancements in FE analysis need to be consolidated before any further steps can be taken to implement engineering analysis into the clinical scenario.
Keywords: Finite element analysis; Osteoporosis; Fracture; Bone strength; Femur