Subchondral bone changes have been proposed as an early event in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. In this study, microscopic computed axial tomography was used to evaluate the subchondral bone structure in femoral heads from a guinea pig model of osteoarthritis. Examination of trabecular bone within the femoral head showed a highly significant increase in bone fraction in the experimental animals. This was due to the development of trabeculae that were thicker and closer together. We conclude that trabecular remodeling may be an early event in this model of osteoarthritis.