The most common definition of cerebral concussion is that of a transient loss of neurological function without macroscopic or microscopic abnormality in the brain. However, some patients have persistent symptoms and subtle neuropsychological deficits, particularly affecting memory. We have studied five patients aged 59-89 years who sustained mild concussive head injury and died of other causes (2-99 days post-injury). Immunostaining with an antibody to amyloid precursor protein, a marker of fast axonal transport, showed multifocal axonal injury in all five. All had axonal damage in the fornices, which are important in memory function.