Consensus in scientific literature is that hyperglycemia, which is a condition that manifests in individuals with uncontrolled diabetes, causes compromised bone growth, but the exact mechanisms of are unknown. It has been estimated that 5% of dental implant failures that have previously been linked to unknown causes may be associated with undiagnosed diabetes. It is important to study the early stages of bone growth as it is accepted that they are critical in the longterm success rate of endosseous implants. This study aimed to investigate the bone healing seen in the hyperglycemic group compared to the normal (i.e. control) group, at an early time point, using high-resolution microscopy techniques.
Ten young (200-250gram) male Wistar rats were used for this study with five rats assigned to the control group and the other five rats intravenously injected with 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. An osteotomy model was used to make a 1.3mm defect in the diaphysis of the rat femurs. After five days, the femurs were removed, fixed in glutaraldehyde, dehydrated, and embedded in resin. Structural and chemical analyses were conducted on the samples using a variety of microscopy techniques to examine various factors of bone quality including: bone porosity, relative mineralization level, and the arrangement of collagen and mineral.
When analyzing the micro-structure, the hyperglycemic group showed increased porosity in the newly formed bone as compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found in the nano-structure when analyzing the arrangement of collagen and mineral.Therefore, the results in this thesis suggest that alterations in micro-architecture rather than nano-architecture may play a pivotal role in the compromised bone healing in uncontrolled diabetes at this five-day time point. Future work should investigate additional time points in the bone healing process.
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