Purpose: Non-pathological child cortical bone (NPCCB) studies can provide clinicians with vital information and insights. However, assessing the anisotropic elastic properties of NPCCB remains a challenge for the biomechanical engineering community. For the first time, this paper provides elastic moduli values for NPCCB specimens in two perpendicular directions (longitudinal and transverse) and for two different structural components of bone tissue (osteon and interstitial lamellae).
Materials and Methods: Microindentation is one of the reference methods used to measure bone stiffness. Here, 8 adult femurs (mean age 82 ± 8.9 years), 3 child femurs (mean age 13.3 ± 2.1 years), and 16 child fibulae (mean age 10.2 ± 3.9 years) were used to assess the elastic moduli of adult and child bones by microindentation.
Results: For adult specimens, the mean moduli measured in this study are 18.1 (2.6) GPa for osteons, 21.3 (2.3) GPa for interstitial lamellae, and 13.8 (1.7) GPa in the transverse direction.
For child femur specimens, the mean modulus is 14.1 (0.8) GPa for osteons, lower than that for interstitial lamellae: 15.5 (1.5) GPa. The mean modulus is 11.8 (0.7) GPa in the transverse direction. Child fibula specimens show a higher elastic modulus for interstitial lamellae 15.8 (1.5) than for osteons 13.5 (1.6), with 10.2 (1) GPa in the transverse direction.
Conclusion: For the first time, NPCCB elastic modulus values are provided in longitudinal and transverse directions at the microscale level.