In this article, the author presents mathematical relationships between the structural and mechanical properties of cancellous human bone tissue obtained by experimental analysis of specimens. Bone tissue material can adjust its internal structure to the existing loading conditions. The mechanical properties affect the structural properties but changes in structural properties likewise cause changes in the mechanical properties of the tissue. In normal tissue, the processes of tissue construction, destruction, and reconstruction are mutually balanced and complementary; if that balance is disturbed, lesions can occur. Therefore, normal bone tissue and pathologically changed tissue (osteoporosis and osteoarthrosis) coming from the area of human femoral head were examined. The structural properties of cancellous tissue specimens were determined non-destructively for three-dimensional reconstructions with the use of modern micro-CT methods. The mechanical properties of the specimens were determined by an uniaxial compression test in three orthogonal directions. Next, in order to specify the compressive strength, a failure test was conducted in the direction perpendicular to the neck–shaft angle of the hip joint.
Keywords: osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, mechanical properties, microtomography