The aim of the study was to assess mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in vitro. Six hundred cubic specimens of cancellous bone were obtained from the tibia, femur, patella, lumbar spine and humerus of eight subjects. The elastic properties were assessed using an ultrasonic transmission technique developed and validated by Ashman (1). The results showed that differences exist between subjects significantly (p<0.05) and that the mechanical properties vary along the length and the periphery (about a factor 3 to 5). Cancellous bone should be considered heterogeneous and as orthotropic materials exhibiting degrees of anisotropy varying from 2 to 4. Linear and power fit elationships for cancellous bone were found approximately equal. Powers vary from 1.3 to 1.7 for axial modulus versus density and 1.3 and 2.3 for strength versus density.
Finally, these results suggest the use of appropriate mechanical properties upon the type of bone for finite element analysis.
|2006||Teo JCM, Si-Hoe KM, Keh JEL, Teoh SH. Relationship between CT intensity, micro-architecture and mechanical properties of porcine vertebral cancellous bone. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2006;21(3):235-244.|
|2006||Davies CM, Jones DB, Stoddart MJ, Koller K, Smith E, Archer CW, Richards RG. Mechanically loaded ex vivo bone culture system "Zetos": systems and culture preparation. Eur Cell Mater. January–June 2006;11:57-75.|
|2003||Kowalczyk P. Elastic properties of cancellous bone derived from finite element models of parameterized microstructure cells. J Biomech. July 2003;36(7):961-972.|
|2004||Bourne BC, van der Meulen MCH. Finite element models predict cancellous apparent modulus when tissue modulus is scaled from specimen CT-attenuation. J Biomech. 2004;37(5):613-621.|
|2021||Bennison MBL, Pilkey AK, Lievers WB. Misalignment error in cancellous bone apparent elastic modulus depends on bone volume fraction and degree of anisotropy. J Biomech Eng. February 2021;143(2):021005.|
|2010||Cook RB, Curwen C, Tasker T, Zioupos P. Fracture toughness and compressive properties of cancellous bone at the head of the femur and relationships to non-invasive skeletal assessment measurements. Med Eng Phys. November 2010;32(9):991-997.|
|2005||Cook RB. Non-Invasively Assessed Skeletal Bone Status and Its Relationship to the Biomechanical Properties and Condition of Cancellous Bone [PhD thesis]. Cranfield, UK: Cranfield University; December 18, 2005.|
|2020||Bennison MBL. The Role of Cancellous Bone Architecture in Misalignment and Side Effect Errors [Master's thesis]. Sudbury, ON: Laurentian University; 2020.|
|2006||Whitty M. Development of a Physiological Three Dimensional Finite Element Model of a Human Tibia [Master's thesis]. Kingston, ON: Royal Military College of Canada; May 2006.|
|2009||Schmidt JE. Biomechanical Evaluation of a Stemmed Tibial Implant [PhD thesis]. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin; 2009.|