Cement lines are the boundaries between secondary osteons and the surrounding interstitial bone matrix in cortical bone. The interfacial properties of cement lines have been determined by osteon pushout tests. However, distinctively different material properties were obtained when osteon pushout tests were performed under different test geometries. In the present study, an axisymmetric two-dimensional finite element model was used to simulate an osteon pushout test using the test geometry of actual experiments. The results indicated that shear failure within the osteonal lamellae would occur when the osteon pushout test was performed under the condition of a thick specimen and large supporting hole. On the other hand, cement line debonding occurred when the osteon pushout test was performed using a thin specimen and small supporting hole. The finite element results were consistent with previous experiments of osteon pushout tests under different test geometries. Furthermore, the finite-element results suggest that a smoothly curved punch would most likely cause debonding at the cement line instead of osteonal lamellae.