A cohort of 1680 runners was enrolled through two community road race events and monitored during a 12-month follow-up period for the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. Fortyeight percent of the runners experienced at least one injury, and 54% of these injuries were new; the remainder were recurrences of previous injuries. The risk of injury was associated with increased running mileage but was relatively unassociated with other aspects of training, such as usual pace, usual running surface, hill running, or intense training. Injury rates were equal for all age-sex groups and were independent of years of running experience. Runners injured in the previous year had approximately a 50% higher risk for a new injury during follow-up.