trabecular bone at intermediate strain rates. Meanwhile, strain rates between 10 and 200/s have been observed in previous dynamic finite element models of the proximal femur loaded at realistic sideways fall speeds. This study aimed to quantify the effect of strain rate (̇ε) on modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate stress (σu), failure energy (Uf), and minimum stress (σm) of trabecular bone in order to improve the biofidelity of material properties used in dynamic simulations of sideways fall loading on the hip. Cylindrical cores of trabecular bone (D = 8 mm, Lgauge = 16 mm, n = 34) from bovine proximal tibiae and distal femurs were scanned in µCT (10 µm), quantifying apparent density (ρapp) and degree of anisotropy (DA), and subsequently impacted within a miniature drop tower. Force of impact was measured using a piezoelectric load cell (400 kHz), while displacement during compression was measured from high speed video (50,000 frames/s). Four groups, with similar density distributions, were loaded at different impact velocities (0.84, 1.33, 1.75, and 2.16 m/s) with constant kinetic energy (0.4 J) by adjusting the impact mass. The mean strain rates of each group were significantly different (p < 0.05) except for the two fastest impact speeds (p = 0.09). Non-linear regression models correlated strain rate, DA, and with ultimate stress (R² = 0.76), elastic modulus (R² = 0.63), failure energy (R² = 0.38), and minimum stress (R² = 0.57). These results indicate that previous estimates of σu could be under predicting the mechanical properties at strain rates above 10/s.
Keywords: Trabecular bone; Drop tower; Strain rate; Bone strength; Experiment; Impact