Closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine occur in families or groups within which there is a spectrum of anatomic damage to a cervical motion segment. This study of 165 cases demonstrates the various spectra of injury, called phylogenies, and develops a classification based on the mechanism of injury. The common groups are compressive flexion, vertical compression, distractive flexion, compressive extension, distractive extension, and lateral flexion. The probability of an associated neurologic lesion relates directly to the type and severity of cervical spine injury. With use of the classification, it is possible to formulate a rational treatment plan for injuries to the cervical spine.
Keywords: cervical spine, indirect trauma, fracture, dislocation, classification