Context: Little is known about the impact biomechanics sustained by players during interscholastic football.
Objective: To characterize the location and magnitude of impacts sustained by players during an interscholastic football season.
Design: Observational design.
Setting: On the field.
Patients or Other Participants: High school varsity football team (n ;= ; 35; age ;= ; 16.85 ± 0.75 years, height ;= ; 183.49 ± 5.31 cm, mass ;= ; 89.42 ± 12.88 kg).
Main Outcome Measure(s): Biomechanical variables (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, jerk, force, impulse, and impact duration) related to head impacts were categorized by session type, player position, and helmet impact location.
Results: Differences in grouping variables were found for each impact descriptor. Impacts occurred more frequently and with greater intensity during games. Linear acceleration was greatest in defensive linemen and offensive skill players and when the impact occurred at the top of the helmet. The largest rotational acceleration occurred in defensive linemen and with impacts to the front of the helmet. Impacts with the highest-magnitude jerk, force, and impulse and shortest duration occurred in the offensive skill, defensive line, offensive line, and defensive skill players, respectively. Top-of-the-helmet impacts yielded the greatest magnitude for the same variables.
Conclusions: We are the first to provide a biomechanical characterization of head impacts in an interscholastic football team across a season of play. The intensity of game play manifested with more frequent and intense impacts. The highest-magnitude variables were distributed across all player groups, but impacts to the top of the helmet yielded the highest values. These high school football athletes appeared to sustain greater accelerations after impact than their older counterparts did. How this finding relates to concussion occurrence has yet to be elucidated.
|1999||Powell JW, Barber-Foss KD. Traumatic brain injury in high school athletes. JAMA. September 8, 1999;282(10):958-963.|
|2003||McCrea M, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Barr W, Randolph C, Cantu RC, Onate JA, Yang J, Kelly JP. Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA concussion study. JAMA. November 19, 2003;290(19):2556-2563.|
|2004||McCrea M, Hammeke T, Olsen G, Leo P, Guskiewicz K. Unreported concussion in high school football players: implications for prevention. Clin J Sport Med. January 2004;14(1):13-17.|
|2000||McIntosh AS, McCrory P, Comerford J. The dynamics of concussive head impacts in rugby and Australian rules football. Med Sci Sports Exer. December 2000;32(12):1980-1984.|
|2008||Greenwald RM, Gwin JT, Chu JJ, Crisco JJ. Head impact severity measures for evaluating mild traumatic brain injury risk exposure. Neurosurgery. April 2008;62(4):789-798.|
|2005||Viano DC, Casson IR, Pellman EJ, Bir CA, Zhang L, Sherman DC, Boitano MA. Concussion in professional football: comparison with boxing head impacts: part 10. Neurosurgery. December 2005;57(6):1154-1172.|
|2000||Naunheim RS, Standeven J, Richter C, Lewis LM. Comparison of impact data in hockey, football, and soccer. J Trauma. May 2000;48(5):938-941.|
|2006||Brolinson PG, Manoogian S, McNeely D, Goforth M, Greenwald R, Duma S. Analysis of linear head accelerations from collegiate football impacts. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2006;5(1):23-28.|
|2002||Kleiven S, von Holst H. Consequences of head size following trauma to the human head. J Biomech. 2002;35(2):153-160.|
|1997||McCrea M, Kelly JP, Kluge J, Ackley B, Randolph C. Standardized assessment of concussion in football players. Neurology. March 1997;48(3):586-588.|
|1983||Gerberich SG, Priest JD, Boen JR, Straub CP, Maxwell RE. Concussion incidences and severity in secondary school varsity football players. Am J Public Health. 1983;73(12):1370-1375.|
|2007||Mihalik JP, Bell DR, Marshall SW, Guskiewicz KM. Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: an investigation of positional and event-type differences. Neurosurgery. December 2007;61(6):1229-1235.|
|2007||Schnebel B, Gwin JT, Anderson S, Gatlin R. In vivo study of head impacts in football: a comparison of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I versus high school impacts. Neurosurgery. March 2007;60(3):490-496.|
|1960||Lissner HR, Lebow M, Evans FG. Experimental studies on the relation between acceleration and intracranial pressure changes in man. Surg Gynecol Obstet. September 1960;111(3):329-338.|
|1971||Reid SE, Tarkington JA, Epstein HM, O'Dea TJ. Brain tolerance to impact in football. Surg Gynecol Obstet. December 1971;133(6):929-936.|
|2005||Duma SM, Manoogian SJ, Bussone WR, Brolinson PG, Goforth MW, Donnenwerth JJ, Greenwald RM, Chu JJ, Crisco JJ. Analysis of real-time head accelerations in collegiate football players. Clin J Sport Med. January 2005;15(1):3-8.|
|2003||Guskiewicz KM, McCrea M, Marshall SW, Cantu RC, Randolph C, Barr W, Onate JA, Kelly JP. Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA concussion study. JAMA. November 19, 2003;290(19):2549-2555.|
|2000||Guskiewicz KM, Weaver NL, Padua DA, Garrett WE Jr. Epidemiology of concussion in collegiate and high school football players. Am J Sports Med. September 2000;28(5):643-650.|
|2007||Guskiewicz KM, Mihalik JP, Shankar V, Marshall SW, Crowell DH, Oliaro SM, Ciocca MF, Hooker DN. Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: relationship between head impact biomechanics and acute clinical outcome after concussion. Neurosurgery. December 2007;61(6):1244-1253.|
|2006||Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Wald MM. The epidemiology and impact of traumatic brain injury: a brief overview. J Head Trauma Rehabil. September–October 2006;21(5):375-378.|
|2003||Kleiven S. Influence of impact direction on the human head in prediction of subdural hematoma. J Neurotrauma. April 2003;20(4):365-379.|
|2003||Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Tucker A, Casson IR, Waeckerle JF. Concussion in professional football: reconstruction of game impacts and injuries. Neurosurgery. October 2003;53(4):799-814.|
|2004||Crisco JJ, Chu JJ, Greenwald RM. An algorithm for estimating acceleration magnitude and impact location using multiple nonorthogonal single-axis accelerometers. J Biomech Eng. December 2004;126(6):849-854.|
|2004||Pellman EJ, Powell JW, Viano DC, Casson IR, Tucker AM, Feuer H, Lovell M, Waeckerle JF, Robertson DW. Concussion in professional football: epidemiological features of game injuries and review of the literature—Part 3. Neurosurgery. January 2004;54(1):81-94.|
|2012||Rowson S, Daniel RW, Young T, Cobb BR, Urban JE, Davenport EM, Stitzel JD, Powers A, Maldjian J, Whitlow C, Duma SM. Head acceleration measurements during head impact in pediatric populations. In: Proceedings of the 40th International Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research. 2012.|
|2015||Zhao W, Ji S. Parametric investigation of regional brain strain responses via a pre‐computed atlas. In: Proceedings of the 2015 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 9-11, 2015; Lyon, France.208-220.|
|2017||Byrne G, Tiernan S. An investigation of the effect of impact locations on strain within the brain. In: Proceedings of the 2017 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 13-15, 2017; Antwerp, Belgium.672-673.|
|2017||Eckersley CP, Nightingale RW, Luck JF, Bass CR. Effect of neck musculature on head kinematic response following blunt impact. In: Proceedings of the 2017 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 13-15, 2017; Antwerp, Belgium.685-698.|
|2019||Shah AS, Chiariello R, Dolick K, Wild A, Nelson LD, Gibson P, Hedin DS, McCrea M, Stemper BD. Video assessment and evaluation of two wearable sensors in American football players. In: Proceedings of the 2019 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 11-13, 2019; Florence, Italy.612-613.|
|2013||Urban JE, Daniel RW, Cobb BR, Young TJ, Davenport EM, Rowson S, Powers AK, Duma SM, Stitzel JD. Cumulative exposure risk of concussion for youth and high school football head impacts. In: Proceedings of the 9th Ohio State University Injury Biomechanics Symposium. May 19-21, 2013; Columbus, OH.|
|2012||Beeman SM, Kemper AR, Madigan ML, Franck CT, Loftus SC. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS. Accid Anal Prev. July 2012;47:128-139.|
|2011||Rowson S, Duma SM. Development of the STAR evaluation system for football helmets: integrating player head impact exposure and risk of concussion. Annals Biomed Eng. August 2011;39(8):2130-2140.|
|2012||Rowson S, Duma SM, Beckwith JG, Chu JJ, Greenwald RM, Crisco JJ, Brolinson PG, Duhaime A-C, McAllister TW, Maerlender AC. Rotational head kinematics in football impacts: an injury risk function for concussion. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):1-13.|
|2012||Broglio SP, Surma T, Ashton-Miller JA. High school and collegiate football athlete concussions: a biomechanical review. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):37-46.|
|2012||Funk JR, Rowson S, Daniel RW, Duma SM. Validation of concussion risk curves for collegiate football players derived from HITS data. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):79-89.|
|2012||Ocwieja KE, Mihalik JP, Marshall SW, Schmidt JD, Trulock SC, Guskiewicz KM. The effect of play type and collision closing distance on head impact biomechanics. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):90-96.|
|2012||Mihalik JP, Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Blackburn JT, Cantu RC, Greenwald RM. Head impact biomechanics in youth hockey: comparisons across playing position, event types, and impact locations. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):141-149.|
|2012||Beckwith JG, Greenwald RM, Chu JJ. Measuring head kinematics in football: correlation between the head impact telemetry system and Hybrid III headform. Annals Biomed Eng. January 2012;40(1):237-248.|
|2012||Daniel RW, Rowson S. Head impact exposure in youth football. Annals Biomed Eng. April 2012;40(4):976-981.|
|2013||Rowson S, Duma SM. Brain injury prediction: assessing the combined probability of concussion using linear and rotational head acceleration. Annals Biomed Eng. May 2013;41(4):873-882.|
|2011||Daneshvar DH, Nowinski CJ, McKee AC, Cantu RC. The epidemiology of sport-related concussion. Clin Sports Med. January 2011;30(1):1-17.|
|2021||DiGuglielmo DM, Kelley ME, Espeland MA, Gregory ZA, Payne TD, Jones DA, Filben TM, Powers AK, Stitzel JD, Urban JE. The effect of player contact characteristics on head impact exposure in youth football games. J Appl Biomech. 2021;37(2):145-155.|
|2020||Hanna B. Development of a Metamaterial for Use in American Football Head Protection [PhD thesis]. Cardiff University; September 2020.|
|2015||Drake AM. Dynamic Structural Analysis of Ramming in Bighorn Sheep [Master's thesis]. Colorado State University; F, 2015.|
|2020||Aguirre TG. Bio-Inspired Design for Engineering Applications: Empirical and Finite Element Studies of Biomechanically Adapted Porous Bone Architectures [PhD thesis]. Colorado State University; Summer, 2020.|
|2018||Kuo C. Measurement and Modeling of Head Impact Kinematics [PhD thesis]. Stanford University; May 2018.|
|2018||Tierney G. A Biomechanical Assessment of Direct and Inertial Head Loading in Rugby Union [PhD thesis]. Dublin, Ireland: Trinity College Dublin; 2018.|
|2017||Yu HY. A Laboratory Study on the Effect of Helmet Fit on Biomechanical Measures of Head and Neck Injury in Simulated Impact [Master's thesis]. Edmonton, AB: Unviersity of Alberta; 2017.|
|2011||Nelson TS. Towards a Neck Injury Prevention Helmet for Head-First Impacts: A Mechanical Investigation [PhD thesis]. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia; December 2011.|
|2019||Karton C. Profiling Brain Trauma in Professional American-Style Football and the Implications to Developing Neurological Injury [PhD thesis]. Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa; 2019.|
|2015||Allison MA. The Performance of Helmet-Based Kinematic Measurement Systems: Importance for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Prevention [PhD thesis]. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania; 2015.|
|2019||Bruneau D. Investigation of Head and Brain Response in Football Helmet Impacts Using a Finite Element Model of the Head and Neck With Active Muscle [Master's thesis]. University of Waterloo; 2019.|
|2014||Campbell K. Quantifying and Comparing the Head Impact Biomechanics of Different Player Positions for Canadian University Football [Master's thesis]. University of Western Ontario; 2014.|
|2016||Brooks JS. The Use of P3b as an Indicator of Neurophysiologic Change from Subconcussive Impacts in Football Players [Master's thesis]. University of Western Ontario; 2016.|
|2020||Brooks JS. The Impact of Impacts: Repetitive Head Impact Exposure in Canadian University Football Players [PhD thesis]. University of Western Ontario; 2020.|