The addition of mass to the head has applications from the design of football helmets to the placement of loads on head mounted displays. Determining the effects of mass placed on the head ensures that the design of these systems can be optimized to reduce the effects on the user and to reduce the change of injury occurring.
A testing protocol was developed to determine the effect of mass added to the head which causes changes to total mass, moment of inertia, and torque applied. This testing protocol asked subjects to walk and run on a treadmill with different helmets and masses attached to their heads which changed the moment of inertia and torque applied. Position, velocity, and acceleration sensors were attached to the head and trunk in order to determine how the positioning and dynamic motions of the head and trunk were affected.
The results showed that the addition of mass to the head had very little effect on the positioning and dynamic motions of the head and trunk and there was no correlation between mass, moment of inertia, or torque applied and the positioning and dynamic motions exhibited by the subjects.
|2008||Sovelius R, Oksa J, Rintala H, Huhtala H, Siitonen S. Neck muscle strain when wearing helmet and NVG during acceleration on a trampoline. Aviat Space Environ Med. February 2008;79(2):112-116.|
|1973||Walker LB Jr, Harris EH, Pontius UR. Mass, volume, center of mass, and mass moment of inertia of head and head and neck of human body. In: Proceedings of the 17th Stapp Car Crash Conference. November 17-19, 1973; Coronado, CA. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers:525-537. SAE 730985.|
|1994||Buhrman JR, Perry CE. Human and manikin head/neck response to +Gz acceleration when encumbered by helmets of various weights. Aviat Space Environ Med. December 1994;65(12):1086-1090.|
|2005||Merkle AC, Kleinberger M, Uy OM. The effects of head-supported mass on the risk of neck injury in army personnel. Johns Hopkins APL Tech Dig. January–March 2005;26(1):75-83.|
|1983||Phillips CA, Petrofsky JS. Neck muscle loading and fatigue: systematic variation of headgear weight and center-of-gravity. Aviat Space Environ Med. October 1983;54(10):901-905.|
|1997||Ashrafiuon H, Alem NM, McEntire BJ. Effects of weight and center of gravity location of head-supported devices on neck loading. Aviat Space Environ Med. October 1997;68(10):915-922.|
|2004||Knight JF, Baber C. Neck muscle activity and perceived pain and discomfort due to variations of head load and posture. Aviat Space Environ Med. February 2004;75(2):123-131.|
|2003||Thuresson M, Äng B, Linder J, Harms-Ringdahl K. Neck muscle activity in helicopter pilots: effect of position and helmet-mounted equipment. Aviat Space Environ Med. May 2003;74(5):527-532.|