The results of a recent study which estimated the effectiveness of airbags in reducing driver and right-front-passenger fatalities are summarized. In addition, the effectiveness of various other active and passive approaches to occupant crash protection are also discussed. Passive approaches include energy absorbing steering columns, instrument panel padding, and increasing car mass. Active approaches include lap/shoulder belts in the front seats of cars, lap-only belts in the rear seats of cars, motorcycle helmets, car passengers transferring from front to rear seats, and crash avoidance. It is concluded that many disparate approaches can generate important reductions in occupant fatalities (a one percent reduction in occupant fatalities saves about 200 lives per year). The most commonly discussed active protection device (the lap/shoulder belt) is substantially more effective at reducing driver fatalities than is the most commonly discussed passive device (the airbag). A 54% use rate of lap/shoulder belts generates the same fatality reduction as universal use of airbags (without other restraints). It is recommended that discussions of occupant protection should include all measures which reduce occupant harm. For example, of the various passive approaches reviewed, increasing car mass generates the largest occupant fatality reductions.