The purpose of the project was to investigate the performance of child restraints in actual crashes. Timely notification of crashes in which a child restraint was used was solicited from state and national agencies and other organizations concerned with vehicle occupant protection. Notifications of 214 crashes were received, and 16 cases of interest were investigated in depth at the crash locale. These cases are described in detail, and evaluations of the effectiveness of specific child restraints, used in specific ways in these crashes, are made. Two of the crashes were judged to be close in crash configuration and severity to laboratory dynamic test conditions. Conclusions of the study are (1) severe frontal crashes in which a child is properly harnessed in a properly secured child restraint are rare events; (2) child restraints that only meet static test criteria provide some injury protection in less severe crashes; (3) child restraints that meet dynamic test criteria provide excellent injury protection when used properly and still provide adequate protection in some misuse modes; and (4) further work is needed with respect to both vehicle structures and child restraint design to provide better side impact protection for children.