This study compares highway crash incidence, injuries, and costs by vehicle type, Annual crash and injury incidence were estimated using Crashworthiness Data System (1988-1991), National Automotive Sampling System (1982-1986), General Estimates System (1992- 1993), and Fatal Analysis Reporting System (1993) data. Costs were computed based on restraint use, body region, and threat-to-life severity of the injury. Costs were then allocated between vehicle types using three different methods in order to answer comparative safety questions. Motor vehicle and bicycle crash costs total $389 billion annually; 75% resulting from passenger vehicles. Motorcycles and bicycles have the highest costs per 1000 vehicle and passenger miles; costs per victim are highest for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists. Costs per vehicle mile for heavy trucks and passenger cars are comparable but exceed costs for light trucks. Passenger vehicleoccupants are safest if a crash occurs. Light truck, other single truck, and bus occupants have the lowest cost per passenger mile, but higher costs than air and rail travelers. Motorcyclists face the greatest risks. Combination trucks may not impose an excess risk to other drivers, but their drivers face large risks.
Keywords: Costs, crashes, motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians