For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates – the RID3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models ‐ was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates. Additional scenarios were tested in order to investigate sensitivity to neck orientation and the influence of a helmet. The RID3D alters neck kinematic behaviour dependent on neck initial position to a large extent. Also, the RID3D undergoes serious neck extension while the numerical human models and the volunteers undergo limited neck flexion.
Keywords: RID3D dummy; numerical human model; vertical impact; head/neck kinematics; neck loads