The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms of pedestrian pelvis loading due to impact from various vehicle front ends using finite element (FE) human and vehicle models. Three types of vehicles were chosen to represent different loading patterns to the pelvis of a pedestrian. Full-scale car-pedestrian impact simulations using these vehicle models were performed with different pedestrian conditions to identify major factors of pelvis loading for different loading patterns. In addition, FE simulations using an isolated pelvis model were run to clarify factors of determining pelvis internal load distributions when subjected to different loading patterns. The results suggested that inertial contributions from the upper body and the contralateral lower limb need to be accurately incorporated when evaluating pelvis injuries in pedestrians struck by various types of vehicles.
Keywords: pedestrians; pelvis; mechanics; human body; finite element method