This paper presents the results of direct impact test on both the knee of seated and lower leg of standing unembalmed human cadavers. Variables studied in the program included impactor energy and momentum, impact force, and impact direction (axial, oblique, frontal and lateral). Multiple strain gage rosettes were applied to the femure to determine the strain distribution in the bone.
The test results indicate that the unembalmed skeletal system of the lower extremities is capable of carrying significantly greater loads than those determined in tests with embalmed subjects (the only similar data reported in the present literature). The strain analysis indicated that significant bending moments are generated in the femur with axial knee impact.