Forces necessary for fracture under localized loading have been obtained experimentally for a number of regions of the head. Three of these, the frontal, temporoparietal, and zygomatic, have been studied in sufficient detail to establish that the tolerances are relatively independent of impulse duration, in contrast with the tolerance of the brain to closed-skull injury. Significantly lower average strength has been found for the female bone structure.
Other regions reported upon more briefly are mandible, maxilla, and the laryngotracheal cartilages of the neck.
Pressure distribution has been measured over the impact area, which has been 1 sq in. in these tests, and the relationship between applied force as measured and as predicted from a head accelerometer is examined.