Human trabecular bone specimens (n = 121) from the proximal tibial epiphysis of nine macroscopically normal cadaver knees were tested nondestructively to a fixed strain (0.6%) for analysis of unloading energy and hysteresis energy followed by a destructive test for analysis of work to failure. All energy properties showed interindividual variation (p < 0.005). There was a strong positive correlation between unloading energy and both stress (r = 0.95) and stiffness (r = 0.89) determined at 0.6% strain. A less strong, but statistically significant, correlation was found between hysteresis energy and stress (r = 0.82) and stiffness (r = 0.76) at 0.6% strain. There was a negative correlation between the loss tangent and stiffness at 0.6% strain (r = −0.40, p < 0.001). Work to failure correlated positively with modulus of elasticity (r = 0.75), ultimate stress (r = 0.92), and ultimate strain (r = 0.51). There was a positive mutual correlation between all energy properties (p < 0.001).
Keywords: Trabecular bone; Compression test; Hysteresis energy; Stiffness; Elasticity; Loading energy; Unloading energy; Work to failure