Athletes who participate in high-impact sports are at higher risk for acute and chronic forefoot injuries. We review the diagnosis and treatment techniques for the most common conditions that produce forefoot pain in the athlete: metatarsal stress fracture, hallux valgus, hallux rigidus, second metatarsophalangeal synovitis and instability, turf toe, and sesamoid pathologies. These conditions and their treatments are discussed in the context of forefoot anatomy and biomechanics. Both nonoperative and operative techniques are highlighted.
Keywords: turf toe; sesamoid; hallux; sports injuries; metatarsalgia