This paper describes a new generation anthropomorphic dummy with component dynamic responses which approximate available biomechanics data. This experimental test dummy, Hybrid III, is based on the ATD 502 dummy which was developed in 1973 by General Motors under contract with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Like the ATD 502, Hybrid III features a biomechanically-based head design, human-like automotive seating posture, constant torque primary joints, and detailed documentation for fabrication. Hybrid III uniquely features a biomechanically-based neck, thorax, and knee covering. Transducers for measurement of neck loads and chest deflection are integral parts of the design.
While Hybrid III appears to provide a measurable improvement over the present "standard" dummy (Part 572) in terms of component responses in frontal impacts, it is still far from the "ultimate" test dummy. Hybrid III does not, for example, provide substantial biofidelity improvements for lateral impacts. This and other desirable improvements must await additional biomechanics data.
This paper describes the design and presents test results for three prototype dummies. Dynamic responses, relative to human cadaver and limited volunteer data, are presented for head, neck, thorax, and knee components. Performance of the Part 572 dummy is also presented for comparison. An evaluation of whole dummy repeatability and reproducibility during Hyge sled tests is described. Hybrid III and Part 572 dummy performances are compared. Additional work, which would be required to more fully evaluate Hybrid III, is outlined.
This paper concludes that Hybrid III component responses are significantly closer to biomechanics data than those of the Part 572 dummy. The three prototypes are as repeatable as the Part 572 dummy and significantly more reproducible.